What does the word ‘absurd’ bring to mind for you?
A lot of people associate ‘absurd’ with ‘ridiculous,’ usually in a humorous context, but sometimes not. If someone tells you an outlandish story, you might balk and say “that’s absurd!” to indicate that you don’t believe them—the story goes beyond your suspension of disbelief.
This suspension of disbelief is at the core of ‘absurd,’ and it’s what makes absurdist fiction sometimes difficult to talk about. How do you dissect something that you mostly understand through abstract concepts? How do you talk about something that’s about how hard it is to talk about? And how can you even begin to write that way?
In this article, we’re going to talk about how to write absurdist fiction. We’ll break down what it is and how to write it, and then we’ll review some examples to add to your reading list.
What is absurdist fiction?
Absurdist fiction is a genre mostly defined by pervasive themes of nihilism, existentialism, and purposeless. Absurdism often doesn’t follow traditional storytelling formats and instead leans on unconventional imagery, plot structures, and formats to convey meaning.
Usually, absurdism aims to derive purpose from a seemingly pointless or meaningless event. This doesn’t mean a small event, or an inconsequential one—in fact, most absurdist fiction is about traumatic experiences.
If you’ve ever gone through a traumatic experience, you know that one of the biggest challenges in the healing process is the overwhelming sense of meaninglessness that comes with it: this horrible thing happened, and the world just keeps going. Why did this happen to you? Why did this happen at all? Why do horrible things happen, and is there any point to any of it?
These are big questions, and they’re not easy to answer through the lens of traditional storytelling. Traditional storytelling uses systems like setup and payoff, playing on audience expectation and tailoring reality to make a satisfying narrative. But life isn’t like that. Trauma isn’t like that. Absurdist fiction refuses to bend that way, so it finds other ways to create meaning.
5 Characteristics of Absurdist Fiction
There are five main characteristics of absurdist fiction, and we’re going to talk about each of them to shed a little more light on how this genre operates in practice.
#1 – Irrational logic
Some things might not make sense the first time you read it, and some things may be out of order, seemingly nonsensical, or surreal. Note the phrase ‘the first time you read it’ and ‘seemingly nonsensical,’ because we’re going to talk about this idea later.
Absurdist fiction turns some readers off because, at least on the first read, things feel a little jarringly random. A character is suddenly talking to space aliens—why? This doesn’t make sense! Because absurdist fiction doesn’t use conventional storytelling methods, it works outside of reader expectations. If you don’t know what you’re getting into, it can feel unsatisfying and unclear at first.
#2 – Existential topics
Absurdist fiction wants to derive meaning from the meaningless, and immediately, some themes come to mind—mostly death. Life after death, good vs. evil, and the complexities of being human are common themes in absurdist fiction, and again, because absurdist fiction insists on fully tackling the complexities of these themes, it’s going to have to get a little weird.
Absurdist fiction might also, as I mentioned earlier, concern itself with traumatic experiences. You might see absurdist fiction about war, family tragedy, divorce, etc. These experiences are often incredibly complex and difficult to extract any meaning from, but absurdist fiction sets out to do so. Sometimes it seeks to find the good in these experiences, but more often it understands that to find any meaning is to seek the good.
#3 – Dark humor
Absurdist fiction will often include jokes about taboo subjects. This is done either to find the humor in a seemingly humorless situation or to provoke the reader and make them think about the subject at hand—usually both.
#4 – Satire
Satire can serve as a form of social criticism and fit in the category of absurdist fiction. This type of satire is often meant to critique systems of power like governments or the ultra-wealthy.
#5 – Nihilism
Characters will often straightforwardly struggle to find meaning with life or meaning with anything. In nihilism, this meaninglessness leads to a kind of freedom—because there is no meaning, there are also no obligations or requirements. Basically, absurdist literature asks: if nothing matters, what does?
How to write absurdist fiction
Now that we understand what absurdist fiction looks like, we can talk about how to write our own. It might seem daunting, but in fact, absurdist fiction can be a very freeing way to write, especially if your subject matter is particularly intense or complicated.
#1 – Decide what the book is about
This is your first task when it comes to writing anything, but it’s especially important when it comes to writing absurdist literature. You want to take God to court—cool, but how?
It’s easy to get lost in the abstract nature of absurdist art and spend paragraphs waxing philosophic about the meaning of life. This is a very valid journaling exercise, but it doesn’t make for a compelling narrative. And even if your book isn’t following a traditional narrative structure, it still needs to be at least interesting to read or it will not be read.
If you’re taking God to court, what are you taking him to court for, specifically? Which crime? Are you talking about war—if so, which war? Divorce? The death of a family member?
This event is going to be the core of your book—in exploring this event, you’re exploring absurdist themes and ideas. Everything should tie back to it or expand upon it in some way.
#2 – Make your absurdism deliberate
Some new writers will confuse absurdism with ‘random’ literature, and they’ll use absurdism as a sort of excuse for incomprehensible stories with people talking a lot about death but not actually saying much. Again, this is the problem wherein authors wax philosophic and forget about telling a story.
Absurdism is definitely the time and place for strange, surreal things to happen in your book. You might have aliens, ghosts, alternate dimensions, or all three. But you want to pick these things with some kind of intent. Why aliens? Why an alternate dimension? What does that say about the story’s core event, and what meaning does it add? Basically, you want to be aware of how that element functions in the story and where it enables the story to go.
This might sound overwhelming, but it’s not, really. Think of it like this: if something is happening in your story for absolutely no reason except to impress upon the reader that ‘nothing matters,’ it needs to be fixed. ‘Nothing matters’ is the jumping-off point in absurdist fiction, and reiterating that point over and over again won’t get you any favors from readers.
#3 – Keep your scenes rooted
Again, this can be tricky with absurdist fiction, as the genre is so defined by its refusal to be rooted at all. While it’s encouraged to explore the limits of reality and your reader’s suspension of disbelief, you still want it to be coherent sentence to sentence, paragraph to paragraph, and scene to scene. Having a core event will help with this, and so will rooting your scenes.
How do you root a scene? Lean into sensory detail, make sure you’ve got your point-of-view and verb tense on lock, and lean into your character’s perspective. Locking into a character’s perspective or a strong narrative voice is a very helpful through-line that a reader can hold onto while they navigate a complicated or surreal narrative.
#4 – Get vulnerable
The ‘nothing matters’ problem comes from an unwillingness to engage with existentialism, which is kind of funny, because that’s the whole point of the genre. Characters should be exploring the problems posed by existentialism and nihilism and finding meaning within those frameworks, whether that’s humor, societal criticism, or something else.
This means that you, as the author, have to do a lot of thinking about finding meaning in existentialism. What do you think is the point of suffering? Do you think there is one? If not, how do we cope with its inevitability? Your answer should be a little more complicated than ‘there’s no point, haha, you’re all stupid for caring anyway!’
This requires you to be pretty deeply vulnerable with yourself and with your reader. Your characters definitely don’t have to share your ideas about these topics, but they’re going to have some ideas, and those ideas are going to have to come from your brain. While you don’t want to end up publishing paragraphs and paragraphs of philosophical ponderings, you may need to write those paragraphs to confront these ideas and concepts.
Absurdist fiction acknowledges that sometimes, the ‘real world’ is impossible to talk about in a straightforward way. It’s often surreal, yes, but it’s doing that as a means of getting real with the reader. It’s getting surreal to get real. Absurdism is fun!
#5 – Read other absurdist fiction
As with any other kind of writing, the best thing you can do is read. Because it can be such a struggle to find a coherent framework for absurdist fiction, reading is especially important. The examples you read will either work for you or they won’t, and picking apart why they do or don’t work will go a long way in helping you understand how you’ll write your own.
Read a variety of absurdist fiction books from different authors, and even if you don’t love it, try sticking it out and determining why. Is the author using particularly strange language that you’re having trouble understanding? Are there time jumps that you don’t prefer? Even if these things aren’t bad, they might not be your cup of tea, and that’s completely fine! All of the new information you gather about your own preferences will be useful in writing your own work.
Examples of absurdist fiction
As promised, I’ve got some absurdist fiction recommendations for you. This is a beginner-friendly list, so if you’re new to the genre and not sure what to try, anything off this list is going to be a great place to start.
- Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut
- Cat’s Cradle by Kurt Vonnegut
- The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka
- The Stranger by Albert Camus
- The Overcoat by Nikolai Gogul
- Orlando by Virginia Woolf
What to do next
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